Home >Classes >Classes – Other Publishers >Little Red Goblin Games >

Star Ranger


The universe sings and only those with a keen ear can hear its song. This cosmic resonance, the “symphony of the planets”, is a powerful universal force that guides everything from the orbit of planets down to the movement of quarks. This resonance lets star rangers eke out small mystical feats that let they survive for another day. Star rangers have a natural wanderlust, as the “call of the universe” is strongest in them, and are constantly traveling. Because of this they are the ultimate improvisers; adapting to overcome any obstacle with a huge bag of tricks.

Star rangers can listen to the unspoken song of the stars and, as their training progresses, can interpret it to mean certain things. With time, training, and practice they can learn a lot about a city simply by spending a few days in it studying its song or see the heart of a desert world by interpreting the spiritual noise it produces.

All star rangers have a natural wanderlust, brought on by the call of the stars, but not all embark on journeys for the same reasons; star rangers are as diverse as any group of people. Some travel to hear all the songs of the universe, some to get rich, some to offer aid in universal causes, some as an expression of their faith, and some to stay one step ahead of the law.

A star ranger is, at its core, a character who has options. They have skill points, bonus feats, adaptations, spells, etc and because of this they either have just the right tool for the job, or can find it in a few minutes. Secondarily they are about exploration and information superiority: they know what’s going on and where it’s happening before anyone else does.

They are always seasoned, confident, characters with a bevy of useful talents and knacks that some in the party may lack.

Hit Points: 7

Stamina Points: 7 + Con modifier

Key Ability Score: Star rangers are Wisdom-based characters.

Class Skills: Acrobatics ( Dex), Athletics ( Str), Culture ( Int), Diplomacy ( Cha), Engineering ( Int), Intimidate ( Cha), Life Science ( Int), Medicine ( Int), Mysticism ( Wis), Perception ( Wis), Piloting ( Dex), Profession ( Cha, Int, or Wis), Sense Motive ( Wis), Stealth ( Dex), Survival ( Wis)

Skill Ranks per Level: 6 + Intelligence modifier

Proficiencies Armor: Light armor and heavy armor; Weapons: Basic and advanced melee weapons, small arms, and longarms

Relationship to Other Classes

  • Envoy: An envoy may benefit from a star ranger’s presence and guidance but they don’t often interact beyond that. Star rangers tend to do their own thing and envoys are more interested in working as a team. They both “read” things; envoys do it with people and star rangers with places so this intuitive connection allows them to bond sometimes.
  • Mystics: Star rangers are similar to mystics in that they are both aware of the will of the greater cosmos. While they may have spells and draw from the same list, they gain their mystical powers more incidentally, not as a matter of study and are never their primary focus. Mystics will understand the star ranger’s connection to the cosmos and can even bond with them over it. While star rangers may never fully grasp the mystic’s reliance on magic, they sometimes feel like they have a shared burden or interest.
  • Operatives: Star rangers share some of the way they approach combat with operative as they try to approach things in a creative fashion rather than a straightforward one. Star rangers differ in that they tend to focus on survival and rely on their mystic abilities more than any particular piece of gear or social subversion.
  • Solarian: A solarian and a star ranger understand each other as both are agents of the greater cosmos. A solarian taps into a different, more direct, sort of power while a star ranger has a more generalized and utility-focused approach to their utilization of their powers. A star ranger is to a solarion as a operative is to a soldier.
  • Soldiers: Star rangers and soldiers understand each other but don’t often intersect; both regularly find themselves in hostile environments and have a focus on survival but approach it differently. Soldiers rely on their equipment and training while a star ranger accomplishes the same feat with hard-won intuition and mystic abilities.
  • Technology Classes: Technomancers and mechanics are at odds with star rangers; they don’t have an overt reliance on technology but they can see the appeal. They will work together but may view each other with suspicion.
Table 4-1: The Star Ranger
Level Base Attack Bonus Fort Save Ref Save Will Save Class Features
1st +1 +2 +0 +2 Spells, wanderlust
2nd +2 +3 +0 +3 Adaptation, cosmic resonance
3rd +3 +3 +1 +3 Acclimate, bonus feat, weapon specialization
4th +4 +4 +1 +4 Adaptation
5th +5 +4 +1 +4 Planet totem
6th +6 +5 +2 +5 Adaptation
7th +7 +5 +2 +5 Bonus feat
8th +8 +6 +2 +6 Adaptation
9th +9 +6 +3 +6 Planet totem
10th +10 +7 +3 +7 Adaptation
11th +11 +7 +3 +7 Bonus feat
12th +12 +8 +4 +8 Adaptation
13th +13 +8 +4 +8 Planet totem, star ranger’s onslaught
14th +14 +9 +4 +9 Adaptation
15th +15 +9 +5 +9 Bonus feat
16th +16 +10 +5 +10 Adaptation
17th +17 +10 +5 +10 Planet totem
18th +18 +11 +6 +11 Adaptation
19th +19 +11 +6 +11 Bonus feat
20th +20 +12 +6 +12 Adaptation

Spells (Ex) [1st Level]

You cast spells drawn from the mystic’s spell list. To learn or cast a spell, you must have a Wisdom score equal to at least 10 + the spell’s level. The Difficulty Class for a saving throw against your spell is 10 + the spell’s level + your Wisdom modifier.

You can cast only a certain number of spells of each spell level per day. Your number of spells per day is given on Table 4-2: Star Ranger spell Per Day. You do not gain bonus spells due to high Wisdom. You can also cast 0-level spells; these spells are cast like any other spell, but there is no limit to how many 0-level spells you can cast each day.

Your selection of spells is limited. You begin play knowing two 0-level spells and one 1st-level spells of your choice from the mystic’s spell list. At each new star ranger level, you learn one or more new spells, as indicated on Table 4-3: Star Ranger Spells Known (The number of spells you know isn’t affected by your Wisdom modifier).

Every time you gain a level, you can swap out one spell you already know and learn a single new spell of the same level in its place. In effect, you lose the old spell in exchange for the new one. You must choose whether or not to swap the spell at the same time you gain new spells known for the level.

You can cast any star ranger spell you know at any time, assuming you have not yet used up your allotment of spells per day for the spell’s level. You can also cast a spell using a higher-level spell slot. For instance, if you want to cast a 1st-level spell but have used up all your 1st-level spells for the day, you can use a spell from a 2nd-level slot instead if you have one.

You can also decipher magical inscriptions that would otherwise be unintelligible or, as a full action, identify any spells encoded in a spell gem as a full action.

This does not normally invoke the magic contained within, although it may do so in the case of a Cursed or trapped spell gem.

Wanderlust (Ex) [1st Level]

You gain Toughness as a bonus feat at 1st level. In addition, you add 1/2 your level (minimum +1) to all Constitution checks to continue running, to avoid damage from a forced march, to hold your breath, and to avoid damage from starvation or thirst, on Fortitude saving throws to avoid taking damage from hot or cold environments, to withstand the harmful effects of thick and thin atmospheres, to avoid choking when breathing in heavy smoke, and to avoid fatigue caused by sleep deprivation. This bonus stacks with Toughness and is extended to any ally who has traveled with you for at least 24 hours, ending 24 hours after parting ways (allies without Toughness simply add 1/2 your level to such checks).

Adaptations [2nd Level]

Using your wits and a touch of mysticism, you’ve learned how to use your environment to adapt to various situations. At 2nd level and every even level thereafter you gain an adaptation from the list of those found later in this class’s entry.

Cosmic Resonance (Sp) [2nd Level]

A star ranger can plum the deepest heart of a location; be it a planet or town. Once per day you can take 10 minutes to listen to the heart of a place you are in and expend 1 RP to cast commune with nature. Unlike the normal spell you only gain knowledge of 1 subject (rather than 3) + 1 additional subject per 4 class levels. A star ranger who uses this ability also adds the following subject to the list of subjects they can get information on: general lay of the politics, kinds of people, and the pervasive attitudes (in a settlement with a sentient population).

Table 4-2: Star Ranger Spells Per Day
Level 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
1st 1
2nd 1
3rd 1
4th 1 1
5th 2 1
6th 2 1
7th 2 1 1
8th 2 2 1
9th 3 2 1
10th 3 2 1 1
11th 3 2 2 1
12th 3 3 2 1
13th 3 3 2 1
14th 3 3 2 2
15th 3 3 3 2
16th 3 3 3 2
17th 3 3 3 2
18th 3 3 3 3
19th 3 3 3 3
20th 3 3 3 3
Table 4-3: Star Ranger Spells Known
Level 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
1st 2 1
2nd 2 1
3rd 3 1
4th 3 2 1
5th 4 2 1
6th 4 2 1
7th 4 3 2 1
8th 4 3 2 1
9th 4 3 2 1
10th 4 4 3 2 1
11th 4 4 3 2 1
12th 4 4 3 2 1
13th 4 4 4 3 2
14th 4 4 4 3 2
15th 4 4 4 3 2
16th 4 4 4 4 3
17th 4 4 4 4 3
18th 4 4 4 4 3
19th 4 4 4 4 4
20th 4 4 4 4 4

Acclimate (Sp) [3rd Level]

A star ranger is a master of adapting to whatever environment or situation they find themselves in.

By expending 1 RP you may exist comfortably in the environment you find yourself in as if you had a life bubble spell.

Bonus Feat [3rd Level]

You gain a bonus feat at 3rd level and every 4 levels thereafter. The feat selected may not be a combat feat.

Weapon Specialization (Ex) [3rd Level]

You gain Weapon Specialization as a bonus feat for each weapon type this class grants you proficiency with.

Planet Totem (Ex) [5th Level]

Star rangers bind themselves to planets (or other stellar bodies) they identify with. They carry a piece of that song around in their soul at all times, keeping them mindful of specific things. Their spiritual connection with them always ensures they know the location of said planet in relation to themselves and it grants them a host of abilities linked to that planet’s archetypal spiritual concept.

Example: Paul Atreides from the Dune series might select “Arrakis” as his planetary totem and decide the “Mars” totem best represents it. He now bound to the spirit of Arrakis, making him ever mindful of survival and his location in relationship to Arrakis.

Star Ranger’s Onslaught (Ex) [13th Level]

When you make a full attack, you can make up to three attacks instead of two attacks. You take a -6 penalty to these attacks instead of a -4 penalty.

Master Ranger (Ex) [10th Level]

You gain 2 adaptations that you did not already have.

In addition, once per day as a move action, you can temporarily trade out one of your adaptations for another adaptation that you qualify for. This trade lasts 24 hours.


This is a list of adaptations. Each may only be selected once unless otherwise stated.

Animal Song

You gain an insight bonus on Survival checks made to handle animals or rear a wild animal equal to 1/2 your class level (minimum +1). In addition you can communicate with any creature of the animal type, though this doesn’t make it friendly. If an animal is friendly toward you, it may do you favors. This ability allows you to use Intimidate to bully animals, and you can use any other language-dependent effect against animals.

Blend in With the Herd

When in an area congested with living beings (a densely packed street, a herd of animals, etc) you gain a +2 bonus on Disguise and Stealth checks to go unnoticed and can move at your normal movement speed.

Bonus Feat

You may take a feat in place of an adaptation. This may be taken any number of times.


While prone, you take no penalty on melee attack rolls and take no penalty to your AC against melee attack rolls from enemies.

Environmental Advantage

While flanking, you improve any attack roll bonus it provides by 2 for both yourself and the ally you are flanking with (typically, this increases it to a +4).

Environmental Interpose

You do not trigger the first attack of opportunity you’d normally provoke in a given round. In addition, you gain +2 circumstance bonus to hit with attacks of opportunity.

Frugal Usage

You’ve found shortcuts and have a very strict trigger discipline that allows you to more efficiently utilize ammunition on the battlefield. When using a weapon with a usage of 3 or higher, cut the usage requirement in half to a minimum of 2. This only works on player-scale weapons that uses rounds or charges as ammunition.

Go Anywhere

You gain Climbing Master and Swimming Master as bonus feats, even if you don’t meet the prerequisites.

Improvisational Fighting

By listening to the song of the universe you can anticipate an enemy’s action and lead them into devastating counters. You gain a +2 bonus on attack rolls to make combat maneuvers, can take a full round action to make 2 combat maneuvers at -4 penalty, and inflict damage equal to your Wisdom modifier upon a successful combat maneuver.

Savage Critical

You can use the environment to cause a more devastating critical hit than normal. This allows you to grant any weapon you have the wound effect on critical if it doesn’t have it. If the weapon has a critical effect you may use chose to use the wound effect or its normal critical effect on a case by case basis.

Saved by the Song

By listening to the cosmic song you are granted a moment of reprieve before tragedy strikes. You gain a +2 luck bonus on all saves.

Simple Tools

When using unarmed strikes, basic melee weapons, or any archaic weapon you gain a +2 bonus on attack rolls. In addition, any weapon or armor with the archaic property loses that quality while you wear/ wield it.

Songborne Spell

You gain an additional spell slot of each spell level you can cast.

Space Hawk

You can move as if you had a fly speed equal to your base movement speed while in zero gravity. In addition, you gain a +2 circumstance bonus on attack rolls with ranged weapons while in zero gravity.

Star Ranger Senses

You gain blindsense (vibrations) 20 feet and a +2 insight bonus on all Perception checks made to spot hidden creatures.

Strider Step

You never double the movement cost when moving through a square due to hampered movement (such as difficult terrain). You are still subject to any dangers those squares impose. In addition, once per day when you take a guarded step you can take 10 feet of movement rather than 5 if you pay 1 RP.


You gain a +2 circumstance bonus on non-lethal damage rolls against targets who are unaware of you.

Terrain Based Movement

Whenever you use cover it provides a greater benefit as you know how to better utilize it. While using any kind of cover you gain a +2 circumstance bonus to your AC and Reflex saves.


You have a sixth sense about traps; the song guides you and warns you about them and you’ve listened well. You gain a +2 bonus to spot traps, dangerous terrain, and similar hazards, and a +2 bonus to disable or bypass such hazards. In addition, you receive a check to notice traps whenever they pass within 10 feet of a trap, whether or not you are actively looking for one.

Wards and Charms

You have a collection of wards, charms, and trinkets that the cosmic song has indicated were good traveling charms. You get a +2 luck bonus on saves against spells.


You’ve been to many planets, found yourself in many ugly situations, and come out more hardy than you did going into it. You gain +1 Stamina Points, +1 Hit Points, +1 Skill Point, and +5 feet of movement. This may be taken any number of times.

Planet Totems

The names of the planets below represent an archetype for a planet. For example, an “Earth Totem” star ranger may not be literally bound to planet Earth in Sol system, but some other civilized world that has a large sentient population.

Black Hole-Type Totem

Black hole star ranger are destroyers, conquerors, and tyrants who make the music fit their message. They use the powers granted to them by the cosmic song to bring everyone in line with it and rule them. They are ruthless, all-consuming, and as destructive as their totem. Unlike other star rangers black hole totems literally pray to a black hole whose all-consuming spirit demands an endless campaign of carnage and consumption.

Warlord [5th Level]

You gain a +4 morale bonus on Intimidate and Athletics checks.

Enslaver [9th Level]

You gain a +2 morale on all attack and damage rolls against sapient creatures who are not subservient to you.

Sacrifice [13th Level]

As a standard action you make make a single attack against a creature with half their hit points or less with the aim of offering the creature targeted to your all-consuming patron. You must spend 1 RP as part of the attack in payment for your dark master adding some of its destructive energy to your attack.

The creature must make a Fortitude save (DC 10 + 1/2 class level + Wisdom modifier) or take your level in additional damage. If reduced to 0 or less hit points by this attack the creature is consumed by a miniature black hole and you recover 1 RP. This only functions against creature who present a reasonable challenge (the black hole spirit does not want pathetic offerings).

Apostle of the Consumer [17th Level]

You may use your sacrifice ability on creatures with any amount of hit points. In addition, the DC of the save for that ability improves by 2 and the damage it deals also increases by 2.

Earth-Type Totem

A star ranger bound to an Earth-type totem is most at home on civilized worlds. They are able to pick up on subtle social cues in the music of the universe, find people as interesting as the animals of their world, and are always mindful of their position in society.

Socially Mindful [5th Level]

You gain a +4 insight bonus on Culture and Sense Motive checks.

Manhunter [9th Level]

You gain a +2 morale bonus on all attack and damage rolls against humanoids.

Star Speaker [13th Level]

You gain 1 bonus language of your choice that is spoken in an are around you. You may switch this bonus language one per day after you wake up. In addition, you gain a +4 insight bonus on all Profession checks.

Manslayer [17th Level]

The bonus from your manhunter ability improves to a +4.

Jupiter-Type Totem

Seeking perfection and danger, Jovian star rangers are daredevils who challenge insurmountable odds and come out on top. They bind to planets with stormy or other high energy atmospheres (usually gas giants) to channel some of that wild, untapped, raw, energy into their own soul. They are always pushing themselves harder and farther.

Daredevil [5th Level]

You gain a +4 insight bonus on Acrobatics and Athletics checks.

Jovian Skirmisher [9th Level]

You gain a +2 circumstance bonus on attack and damage rolls so long as you moved prior to your attack.

Daring [13th Level]

Once per day per 4 levels of star ranger you can attempt a daring action. This must be a dramatic action with a potentially dangerous or deadly outcome and a less than 50% chance of success. Should you succeed, you recover 1 RP. In addition, increase your maximum Resolve by 2.

Jovian Storm [17th Level]

The bonus from your Jovian skirmisher ability improves to a +4.

Lost Star-Type Totem

Dreamers, seekers, and explorers. Those are the kinds of star rangers who bind to “lost stars”. A lost star is some legendary or rumored place. It might be the lost homeworld of your race, a legendary planet that’s home to a great treasure, or simply a legendary place. While this totem is very abstract (something other star rangers smirk at) there needs to be at least a physical location the star ranger can be attuned to, even if it’s not the literal planet they are looking for.

Lost star star rangers have a tendency to be motivated by the search for something and are seen as a little shifty.

Seeker [5th Level]

You gain a +4 insight bonus on Piloting and Stealth checks.

Opportunist [9th Level]

You gain a +2 circumstance bonus on all attack and damage rolls against creatures unaware of you or while flanking.

Treasure Hunter [13th Level]

You gain blindsense (treasure) 120 feet. This sense alerts you to the presence of valuables (currency, gems, fine art, expensive material, etc) worth at least 5,000 credits within 120 feet of you. In addition, you may cast identify at will as a spell like ability and you may attempt to identify items untrained.

Assassin [17th Level]

The bonus from your opportunist ability improves to a +4.

Lunar-Type Totem

Like a moon orbiting a planet, lunar star rangers are bound to their groups. They are loyal, always mindful of the needs of the group, and selfless.

Wise Guidance [5th Level]

When you provides a successful Aid Another check, or receive an aid another check, the bonus provided is a +4 rather than a +2. This applies to both the combat use of aid another and the skill use of aid another.

Ally [9th Level]

You are always focused on how your attacks can open your enemy to your allies. Allies who attack a target you successfully damaged on your last turn gain a +2 circumstance bonus on all attack and damage rolls until the start of your next turn.

Close Orbit [13th Level]

If you are adjacent to an ally when an enemy attacks you, you gain a +2 morale bonus to your AC. An ally who is adjacent to you also gain a +2 morale bonus to their AC if attacked by an enemy.

Gift of the Moon [17th Level]

When you provide healing to an ally’s hit points, increase the amount healed by 50%.

Mars-Type Totem

Mars-bound star rangers are hardened survival types who often register as a bit twitchy or paranoid. They bind to harsh, unforgiving, worlds that most find to inhospitable for long-term habitation. Mars-bound star rangers are like roses; beautiful on the inside but covered in thorns.

Consummate Survivalist [5th Level]

You gain a +4 insight bonus on Survival and Medicine checks.

Hunter [9th Level]

You gain a +2 morale bonus on all attack and damage rolls against aberrations and animals.

Savior [13th Level]

When you activate your acclimate class feature it can be extended to up to 1 allied creature per level who are within 30 feet of you. This lasts so long as the spell does and they remain within a mile of you.

Master Hunter [17th Level]

The bonus from your hunter ability improves to a +4.

Pluto-Type Totem

Always on the fringes of space, Pluto-type star rangers are loners. They are academics, observers, and guardians on the edges of civilized worlds (and beyond). Pluto-bound star rangers watch for dangers from beyond the sphere of civilizations.

Guardian of the Fringe [5th Level]

You gain a +4 insight bonus on Perception and Stealth checks so long as you do not receive any aid another checks when making the check.

Lone Wolf [9th Level]

You gain a +2 on all attack and damage rolls against creatures so long as there is no ally within 60 feet of you.

Sentinel in the Dark [13th Level]

You gain blindsight (vibration) 60 feet.

Dire Wolf [17th Level]

The bonus from your lone wolf ability improves to a +4.

Solar-Type Totem

Solar star rangers are easy to identify. They are gallant explorers and crusaders for great justice who always have a cause they are crusading for.

They are impassioned by the song of the universe to accomplish great deeds in the name of some cause or organization. They can be found on the front lines of military conflicts against wicked foes, passing out flyers for an extremist environmental conservation group, or in back rooms plotting a revolution to overthrow a tyrant. Whatever they’re doing they’re always at the center of it and they are burning bright with their passion.

Solar Inspiration [5th Level]

You gain a +4 moral bonus on Diplomacy and Intimidate checks.

Worked Up [9th Level]

Each day you may select one political group or faction.

You gain a +2 morale bonus on attack and damage rolls against known members of that group or faction.

This bonus lasts for 24 hours or until you rest for 10 minutes to regain Stamina points.

Crusade [13th Level]

Spend 2 RP and select 1 target who fits the target of your worked up class feature. Instead of a +2, you gain a +1/2 level morale bonus on attack and damage rolls against that creature. In addition, you gain a +2 to your AC against attacks from that creature. This lasts for 24 hours or until the creature is dead. If you successfully kill that creature within 24 hours you recover 1 RP.

Solar Beacon [17th Level]

The bonus from your solar inspiration ability improves to a +8.

Altered or Replaced Star Ranger Class Features

For any level at which an archetype provides an alternate class feature, an envoy who takes the archetype alters or replaces the listed class features.

Multilevel [2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th, and 18th Levels]: You don’t gain your 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th, and 18th level adaptations.

9th Level: You gain your 9th level planet totem ability at 10th level and don’t gain you 10th level adaptation.



Theme: Outlaw

Life is hard on the fringe but the cosmic song needs guardians even more where civilization breaks down.

Ability Scores: Life is cruel, brutal, and short. You need a good gun arm ( Dexterity) and a body that can stand up to punishment (Constitution).

Planet Totem: Mars-Type

Adaptations: Environmental Advantage, Environmental Interpose, Improvisational Fighting, Star Ranger Senses

Feats: Improved Combat Maneuver (Dirty Trick), Deadly Aim, Toughness, Slippery Shooter Skills: Medicine, Perception, Sense Motive, Stealth, Sleight of Hand, Survival

Horizon Seeker

Theme: Spacefarer

There is so much out there that isn’t known yet, how can anyone just sit around? The unknown always calls to you, beckoning you towards the next adventure.

Ability Scores: Dexterity and Strength helps keep your mobile style of combat viable. Good Wisdom means your spells can cover for any problem you find yourself in.

Planet Totem: Jupiter-Type

Adaptations: Go Anywhere, Saved By The Song, Trapfinder, Well-Rounded

Feats: Improved Initiative, Mobility, Agile Casting, Shot On The Run Skills: Acrobatics, Athletics, Culture, Mysticism, Perception, Survival


Theme: Outlaw

You’ve never fit in in the civilized world, and seek solace in the song as it guides you. You make sure that you can make it on your own, no matter what the universe throws at you.

Ability Scores: Dexterity keeps your aim true and body bullet-free, while Wisdom keys you into the song and powers your spellcasting.

Planet Totem: Pluto-Type

Adaptations: Blend In With The Herd, Frugal Usage, Space Hawk, Strider Step

Feats: Blind-Fight, Combat Casting, Diehard, Jet Dash, Skills: Acrobatics, Intimidate, Perception, Piloting, Stealth, Survival

Pangalaxian Priest

Theme: Priest

You are an envoy of the cosmos; spreading the message of universal oneness via a religious message that invokes gaia theory.

Ability Scores: You are not as concerned with combat and thus focus on your Wisdom and do not neglect your Charisma.

Planet Totem: Earth-Type

Adaptations: Animal Song, Saved by the Song, Songborne Spell, Subdue

Feats: Coordinated Shot, Spell Penetration, Skill Focus (Diplomacy), Toughness Skills: Culture, Perception, Profession (Diplomat), Sense Motive, Diplomacy, Survival

Section 15: Copyright Notice

Classes of Red Sector © 2019 Little Red Goblin Games LLC; Authors: Scott Gladstein, Ian Sisson, Sasha Lindley Hall.